Although the raw data does not allow extraction of any individual carrier s behavior, it may be used to distinguish one material from another. It could not be compared to a standard value as the exact composition of the semi-conductor is unknown. Your IP: 52.204.57.58 carrier mobility, carrier concentration (n), Hall coefficient (R H), resistivity, magnetoresistance (R), and the conductivity type (N or P) are all derived from the Hall voltage measurement. Both methods provide information about the electrically active impurity profiles. Hall Co-efficient: The hall coefficient can be defined as the Hall’s field per unit current density per unit magnetic field. Hall measurements and four point probing are techniques used to measure the material properties of resistivity, carrier concentration and carrier mobility in semiconductors. Performance & security by Cloudflare, Please complete the security check to access. Mathematically it can be given as:-In extrinsic semiconductor the current carrying charge carriers are of one type either electrons or hole, like in N-type semiconductor the charge carriers are electrons and in P-type semiconductor the charge carriers are holes. If you are at an office or shared network, you can ask the network administrator to run a scan across the network looking for misconfigured or infected devices. • Add your answer and earn points. During that time… The number of electronic states in an elementary energy range (Fig. If the measurement apparatus is set up as described later in Section IV, the Hall voltage is negative for n-type semiconductors and positive for p-type semiconductors. Several manufacturers make Hall Effect sensors in which a sensitive comparator detects the Hall voltage and provides a logic output. This experiment measured the Hall Coefficient of a sample of germanium to be (1.55±0.15)x10-2 m3/C. In a P-type germanium, n i = 2.1 × 10 19 m –3 density of boran 4.5 × 10 23 atoms /m 3. 2. The van der Pauw Method is a technique commonly used to measure the resistivity and the Hall coefficient of a sample. At the point of zero Hall coefficient, it is possible to determine the ratio of mobilities and their relative concentration. (Contrast this with resistivity, which has units of m.) The Hall coe cient is de ned as R H = E=JBwhere E, J, and Bare the magnitudes of the electric eld, … Its power lies in its ability to accurately measure the properties of a sample of any arbitrary shape, as long as the sample is approximately two-dimensional (i.e. As discussed in the module on Hall effect measurements in Cu, the Hall coefficient RH is given by the following equation: RH = VHt/IB = 1/ne (1) Recall that when electrons are the charge carriers, H is negative and when R holes are the charge carriers, H is positive. The Hall coefficient of sample (A) of a semiconductor is measured at room temperature. Thus we see that the Hall coefficient, in conjunction with resistivity measurements, can provide information on carrier densities, mobilities, impurity concentration and other values. Hall coe cient is a parameter that measures the magnitude of the Hall E ect in the sample. Disclaimer: Crazy For Study provides academic assistance to students so that they can complete their college assignments and projects on time. In this lab, you will measure the Hall coefficient in a metal (copper) and in a p-type semiconductor. 6. Hall Effect is used to find whether a semiconductor is N-type or P-type. Issuu company logo. The Hall coefficient of (A) at room temperature is 4×10–4 m3 coulomb–1. The basic physical principle underlying the Hall effect is the Lorentz force. 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